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Knox, Henry, 1750-1806

 

Dates

  • Existence: 1750 - 1806

Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.

Born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts, he owned and operated a bookstore there, cultivating an interest in military history and joining a local artillery company. When the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, he befriended General George Washington, and quickly rose to become the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army. In this role he accompanied Washington on most of his campaigns, and had some involvement in many major actions of the war. He established training centers for artillerymen and manufacturing facilities for weaponry that were valuable assets to the fledgling nation.

Following the adoption of the United States Constitution, he became President Washington's Secretary of War. In this role he oversaw the development of coastal fortifications, worked to improve the preparedness of local militia, and oversaw the nation's military activity in the Northwest Indian War. He was formally responsible for the nation's relationship with the Indian population in the territories it claimed, articulating a policy that established federal government supremacy over the states in relating to Indian nations, and called for treating Indian nations as sovereign. Knox's idealistic views on the subject were frustrated by ongoing illegal settlements and fraudulent land transfers involving Indian lands.

He retired to Thomaston, District of Maine in 1795, where he oversaw the rise of a business empire built on borrowed money. He died in 1806 from an infection he contracted after swallowing a chicken bone, leaving an estate that was bankrupt.

Found in 4 Collections and/or Records:

D. McClure to Gen. Knox, 1792-09-03

McClure MS-1311: David McClure papers
 Folder: 792503, Box: 3
Scope and Contents Letter from (D. McClure) to Gen. Knox a good result of the Indian War: it prevents too extensive emigration to the Western territory. His brother James who died in Dublin. On the back, a copy of Pres. Wheelock's address to Onondeyo, an Onoida chief.

David McClure to Henry Knox, 1791-04-22

McClure MS-1311: David McClure papers
 Folder: 791272, Box: 3
Scope and Contents Letter from D. McClure to Secy. Henry Knox, Major Wyllys who was killed in the late western expedition. The Indians cannot be forced to obedience, but should be conciliated as they have been by the French. The policy of Mass. towards the Penobscot and eastern Indians.

Henry Knox letter

Mss 781178
 Collection
Identifier: Mss 781178
Scope and Contents One-page letter from Henry Knox in New Windsor to General Greene informing him that he has seen Mrs. Greene at Coventry and she and their children are well.

Henry Knox to ___, 1768-08-25

McClure MS-1311: David McClure papers
 Folder: 768475.2, Box: 1
Scope and Contents News of Mr. Kirtland and Mr. Peck.